We go to sea to measure biological rates to get a sense of what is relevant. We develop laboratory experiments to discover the environmental controls on the bacteria performing these rates. But how to connect everything together into an overall picture of how Earth’s climate is shaped by these microorganisms? Modeling is of course the answer!

By creating simple models, we are able to elucidate how a process we see in the environment affects climate, scaling up from the microbial world to the whole of the the planet. As a fascinating vignette, we have shown how overlooked migrating zooplankton can change nitrogen biogeochemistry.